Academic Divisions

Endodontic Division Scientific Publications

Alapati S, Brantley WA, Svec T, Powers J, Nusstein J, Daehn G. SEM observations of nickel-titanium rotary endodontic instruments that fractured during clinical use. J Endod 2005;31(1):40-3.

Alapati S, Brantley WA, Nusstein J, Daehn G, Svec T, Powers J, Johnston W, Guo W. Vickers hardness investigation of work-hardening in used NiTi rotary instruments. J Endod 2006;32(12):1191-3.

Alapati SB, Brantley WA, Iijima M, Schricker SR, Nusstein J, Li UM, Svec TA. Micro-XRD and temperature-modulated DSC investigation of nickel-titanium rotary endodontic instruments. Dent Mater 2009;25(10):1221-9.

Archer R, Reader A, Nist R, Beck M, Meyers W. An in vivo evaluation of the efficacy of ultrasound after step-back preparation in mandibular molars. J Endod 18(11):549-52, 1992.

Balasco M, Drum M, Nusstein J, Reader A, Beck M. Buffered lidocaine for incision and drainage: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. J Endod 2013;39(11):1329-34.

Berberich G, Reader A, Drum M, Nusstein J, Beck M. A prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of the anesthetic efficacy of two percent lidocaine with 1:100,000 and 1:50,000 epinephrine and three percent mepivacaine in the intraoral, infraorbital nerve block. J Endod 2009;35(11):1498-504.

Berlin J, Nusstein J, Reader A, Beck M, Weaver J. Efficacy of articaine and lidocaine in a primary intraligamentary injection administered with a computer-controlled local anesthetic delivery system. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 99(3):361-6, 2005.

Bigby J, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M, Weaver J. Articaine for supplemental intraosseous anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis. J Endod 2006;32(11):1044-7.

Bigby J, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M. Anesthetic efficacy of lidocaine/meperidine for inferior alveolar nerve blocks in patients with irreversible pulpitis. J Endod 2007;33(1):7-10.

Bowles W, Drum M, Eleazer P. Endodontic and implant algorithms. Dent Clin North Am 2010;54(2):401-13.

Brilliant J, Christie W. A taste of endodontics. J Acad Gen Dent 1975;23(3):29-36.

Brilliant J, Marshall J, Rosen S. Further studies on the question of root canal medicaments. J Br Endod Soc 1974;7(1):29-36.

Broering R, Reader A, Drum M, Nusstein J, Beck M. A prospective, randomized comparison of the anesthetic efficacy of the greater palatine and high tuberosity second division nerve blocks. J Endod 2005;33(10):1337-42.

Bultema K, Fowler s, Drum M, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M. Pain reduction in untreated symptomatic irreversible pulpitis using liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel): A prospective, randomized, double-blind trial. J Endod 2016;42(12)1707-12.

Burleson A, Nusstein J, Reader A, Beck M. The in vivo evaluation of hand/rotary/ultrasound instrumentation in necrotic human mandibular molars. J Endod 2007:33(7);782-7.

Burns Y, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M, Weaver J. Anesthetic efficacy of the palatal-anterior superior alveolar injection. J Am Dent Assoc 2004;135(9):1269-76.

Carver K, Nusstein J, Reader A, Beck M.  In vivo antibacterial efficacy of ultrasound after hand and rotary instrumentation in human mandibular molars.  J Endod 2007;33(9):1038-43.

Chaney M, Kerby R, Reader A, Beck M, Meyers W, Weaver J. An evaluation of lidocaine hydrocarbonate compared with lidocaine hydrochloride for inferior alveolar nerve block. Anesth Prog 1991;38(4):212-6.

Childers M, Reader A, Nist R, Beck M, Meyers W. Anesthetic efficacy of the periodontal ligament injection after an inferior alveolar nerve block. J Endod 1996;22(6):317-20.

Claffey E, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M, Weaver J. Anesthetic efficacy of Articaine for inferior alveolar nerve blocks on patients with irreversible pulpitis. J Endod 2004;30(8):568-71.

Clark K, Reader A, Beck M, Meyers W. Anesthetic efficacy of an infiltration in mandibular anterior teeth following an inferior alveolar nerve block. Anesth Prog 2002;49(2):49-55.

Clark S, Reader A, Beck M, Meyers W. Anesthetic efficacy of the mylohyoid block and combination inferior alveolar nerve block/mylohyoid nerve block. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1999;87(5):557-63.

Click V, Drum M, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M. Evaluation of the Gow-Gates and Vazirani-Akinosi techniques in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis: a prospective randomized study. J Endod 2015;41(1):16-21.

Coffae K, Brilliant J. The effect of serial preparation versus nonserial preparation on tissue removal in the root canals of extracted mandibular human molars. J Endod 1975;1(6):211-4.

Coggins R, Reader A, Nist R, Beck M, Meyers W. Anesthetic efficacy of the intraosseous injection in maxillary and mandibular teeth. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod  1996;81(6):634-41.

Cohen H, Reader A, Drum M, Nusstein J, Beck M. Anesthetic efficacy of a combination of 0.9 M manitol plus 68.8 mg of lidocaine with 50 µg epinephrine in inferior alveolar nerve blocks: a prospective randomized, single-blind study.  Anesth Prog 2013;60(4):145-52.

Cohen J, Reader A, Fertel R, Beck M, Meyers W. A radioimmunoassay determination of the concentrations of prostaglandins E2 and F2alpha in painful and asymptomatic human dental pulps. J Endod 1985;11(8):330-5.

Coviello J, Brilliant J. A preliminary clinical study on the use of tricalcium phosphate as an apical barrier. J Endod 1979;5(1):6-13.

Coviello J, Brilliant J, Wright J. Preliminary scanning electron microscopic study of the chlororosin lateral condensation technique. J Endod 1977;3(2):54-62.

Dressman (Smothers) A, Nusstein J, Drum M, Reader A, Beck M, Fowler S. Anesthetic efficacy of a primary articaine infiltration and a repeat articaine infiltration in the incisive/mental nerve region of mandibular premolars: a prospective, randomized, single-blind study. J Endod 2013;39(3):313-8.

Dreven L, Reader A, Beck M, Meyers W. An evaluation of an electric pulp tester as a measure of analgesia in human vital teeth. J Endod 1987;13(5):233-8.

Droll B, Drum M, Nusstein J, Reader A, Beck M. Anesthetic efficacy of the inferior alveolar nerve block in red-haired women. J Endod 2012;38(12):1564-9.

Drum M, Reader A, Nist R, Beck M. Long buccal nerve block injection pain in patients with irreversible pulpitis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011;112:e51-e54.

Dunbar D, Reader A, Nist R, Beck M, Meyers W. Anesthetic efficacy of the intraosseous injection after an inferior alveolar nerve block. J Endod 1996;22(9):481-6.

Elmore S, Nusstein J, Drum M, Reader A, Beck M. Reversal of pulpal and soft tissue anesthesia by using phentolamine: A prospective randomized, single-blind study. J Endod 2013;39(4):429-34.

Evans G, Nusstein J, Drum M, Reader A, Beck M. A prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of articaine and lidocaine for maxillary infiltrations. J Endod 2008;34(4):389-93.

Fernandez C, Reader A, Beck M, Nusstein J. A prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of bupivacaine and lidocaine for inferior alveolar nerve blocks. J Endod 2005;31(7):499-503.

Forloine (Martinkus) A, Drum M, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M. A prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of the anesthetic efficacy of two percent lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and three percent mepivacaine in the maxillary high tuberosity second division nerve block. J Endod 2010;36(11):1770-7.

Foster W, Drum M, Reader A, Beck M. Anesthetic efficacy of buccal and lingual infiltrations of lidocaine following an inferior alveolar nerve block in mandibular posterior teeth. Anesth Prog 2007;54(4):163-9.

Fowler S, Drum M, Nusstein J, Reader A, Beck M. Reversal of soft-tissue anesthesia in asymptomatic endodontic patients: A preliminary, prospective, randomized, single-blind study. J Endod 2011;37(10):1353-8.

Fowler S, Drum M, Reader A, Beck M. Anesthetic success of an inferior alveolar nerve block and supplemental articaine buccal infiltration for molars and premolars in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. J Endod 2016;42(3):390-2.

Fowler S, Fullmer S, Drum M, Reader A. Does acetaminophen/hydrocodone affect cold pulpal testing in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis? A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Endod 2014;40(12);1958-60.

Fowler S, Nusstein J, Drum M, Reader A, Beck M. Reversal of soft-tissue anesthesia in asymptomatic endodontic patients: A preliminary, prospective, randomized, single-blind study. J Endod 2011;37(10):1353-8.

Fowler S, Reader A. Is a volume of 3.6 mL better than 1.8 mL for inferior alveolar nerve blocks in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis? J Endod 2013;39(8):970-2.

Fowler S, Reader A, Beck M. Incidence of missed inferior alveolar nerve blocks in vital asymptomatic subjects and in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. J Endod 2015;41(5):637-9.

Fullmer S, Drum M, Nusstein J, Reader A, Beck M. Effect of preoperative acetaminophen/hydrocodone on the efficacy of the inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Endod 2014;40(1)1-5.

Gallatin E, Reader A, Nist R, Beck M. Pain reduction in untreated irreversible pulpitis using an intraosseous injection of Depo-Medrol. J Endod 2000;26(11):633-8.

Gallatin E, Stabile P, Reader A, Nist R, Beck M. Anesthetic efficacy and heart rate effects of the intraosseous injection of 3% mepivacaine after an inferior alveolar nerve block. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2000;89(1):83-7.

Gallatin J, Nusstein J, Reader A, Beck M, Weaver J. A comparison of injection pain and postoperative pain of two intraosseous anesthetic techniques. Anesth Prog 2003;50(3):111-20.

Gallatin J, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M, Weaver J. A comparison of two intraosseous anesthetic techniques in mandibular posterior teeth. J Am Dent Assoc 2003;134(11):1176-84.

Gilles J, Hendricson W. Environmental influences on grading. J Dent Educ 1987;51(2):111-3.

Gilles J, Reader A. An SEM investigation of the mesiolingual canal in human maxillary first and second molars. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 70(5):638-43, 1990.

Glenn B, Drum M, Reader A, Fowler S, Nusstein J, Beck M. Does liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel) significantly reduce postoperative pain/numbness in symptomatic teeth with a diagnosis of necrosis? A prospective, randomized, double-blind trial. J Endod 2016;42(9)1301-6.

Goldberg S, Reader A, Drum M, Nusstein J. Comparison of the anesthetic efficacy of the conventional inferior alveolar, Gow-Gates and Vazirani-Akinosi techniques. J Endod 2008;34(11):1306-11.

Goodman A, Reader A, Beck M,  Melfi R, Meyers W. An in vitro comparison of the efficacy of the step-back technique versus a step-back/ultrasonic technique in human mandibular molars. J Endod 1985;11(6):249-56.

Gross R, McCartney M, Reader A, Beck M. A prospective, randomized double-blind comparison of bupivacaine and lidocaine for maxillary infiltrations. J Endod 2007;33(9):1021-4.

Guglielmo A, Reader A, Nist R, Beck M, Weaver J. Anesthetic efficacy and heart rate effects of the supplemental intraosseous injection of 2% mepivacaine with 1:20,000 levonordefrin. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1999;87(3):284-93.

Gustafson D, McTigue D, Thikkurissy S, Casamassimo P, Nusstein J. Continued care of children seen in an emergency department for dental trauma. Pediatr Dent 2011;33(5):426-30.

Gutarts R, Nusstein J, Reader A, Beck M. In vivo debridement efficacy of ultrasonic irrigation following hand-rotary instrumentation in human mandibular molars. J Endod 2005;31(3):166-70.

Haase A, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M, Drum M. Comparing anesthetic efficacy of articaine versus lidocaine as a supplemental buccal infiltration of the mandibular first molar after an inferior alveolar nerve block. J Am Dent Assoc 2008;139(9):1228-35.

Haidet J, Reader A, Beck M, Meyers W. An in vivo comparison of the step-back technique versus the step-back/ultrasonic technique in human mandibular molars. J Endod 1989;15(5):195-9.

Hannan L, Reader A, Nist R, Beck M, Meyers W. The use of ultrasound for guiding needle placement for inferior alveolar nerve blocks. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1999;87(6):658-65.

Harreld T, Fowler S, Drum M, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M. Efficacy of a buffered 4% lidocaine formulation for incision and drainage: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. J Endod 2015;41(10):1583-8.

Heller A, Koenigs J, Brilliant JD,  Melfi R Driskell T. Direct pulp capping of permanent teeth in primates using a resorbable form of tricalcium phosphate ceramic. J Endod 1975;1(3):95-106.

Henry M, Reader A, Beck M. Effect of penicillin on postoperative endodontic pain and swelling in symptomatic necrotic teeth. J Endod 2001;27(2):117-23.

Hicks M, Brilliant J, Foreman D. Electron microscope comparison of freeze-substitution and conventional chemical fixation of undecalificied human dentin. J Dent Res 1976;55(3):400-10.

Hinkley S, Reader A, Beck M, Meyers W. An evaluation of 4% prilocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine and 2% mepivacaine with 1:20,000 levonordefrin compared with 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine for inferior alveolar nerve block. Anesth Prog 1991;38(3):84-9.

Houck V, Reader A, Beck M, Nist R, Weaver J. Effect of trephination on postoperative pain and swelling in symptomatic necrotic teeth. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod  2000;90(4):507-13.

Hutchison G, Halcomb T, Reader A, Drum M, Nusstein J, Beck M. A prospective, randomized single-blind study of the anesthetic efficacy of frequency-dependent conduction blockade of the inferior alveolar nerve. J Endod 2011;37(7):938-42.

Isett J, Reader A, Gallatin E, Beck M, Padgett D. Effect of an intraosseous injection of Depo-Medrol on pulpal concentrations of PGE2 and IL-8 in untreated irreversible pulpitis. J Endod 2003;29(4):268-71.

Jensen J, Nusstein J, Drum M, Reader A, Beck M. Anesthetic efficacy of a repeated intraosseous injection following a primary intraosseous injection. J Endod 2008;34(2):126-30.

Karkut B, Reader A, Drum M, Nusstein J, Beck M. A Comparison of the local anesthetic efficacy of the extraoral versus the intraoral infraorbital nerve block. J Am Dent Assoc 2010;141(2):185-92.

Katz S, Drum M, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M. A prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine, 4% prilocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine, and 4% prilocaine for maxillary infiltrations.  Anesth Prog 2010;57(2):45-51.

Kennedy M, Reader A, Beck M, Weaver J. Anesthetic efficacy of ropivacaine in maxillary anterior infiltration. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2001;91(4):406-12.

Kennedy S, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M, Weaver J. The significance of needle deflection in success of the inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with irreversible pulpitis. J Endod 2003;29(10):630-3.

Klayman S, Brilliant J. A comparison of the efficacy of serial preparation versus Giromatic preparation. J Endod 1975;1(10):334-7.

Koenigs J, Brilliant J. Open apices: creating an apical stop with a zinc acetate-grossman's cement mixture on a gutta percha cone. J Acad Gen Dent 1974;22(6):32-5.

Koenigs J, Brilliant J, Foreman D. Preliminary scanning electron microscope investigations of accessory foramina in the furcation areas of human molar teeth. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1974;38(5):773-82.

Koenigs J, Heller A, Brilliant J,  Melfi R Driskell T. Induced apical closure of permanent teeth in adult primates using a resorbable form of tricalcium phosphate ceramic. J Endod 1975;1(3):102-6.

Kreimer T, Kiser R 2nd, Reader A, Nusstein J, Drum M, Beck M. Anesthetic efficacy of combinations of 0.5 mol/L mannitol and lidocaine with epinephrine for inferior alveolar nerve blocks in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. J Endod 2012;38(5):598-603.

Kusner G, Reader A, Beck M, Weaver J, Meyers W. A study comparing the effectiveness of ibuprofen (Motrin), Empirin with codeine #3, and Synalgos-DC for the relief of postendodontic pain. J Endod 10(5):210-4, 1984.

Lammers E, Nusstein J, Reader A, Drum M, Beck M, Fowler S. Does the combination of 3% mepivacaine plain plus 2% lidocaine with epinephrine improve anesthesia and reduce the pain of anesthetic injection for the inferior alveolar nerve block? A prospective, randomized, double-blind study. J Endod 2014;40(9):1287-92.

Lee S, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M, Weaver J. Anesthetic efficacy of the Anterior Middle Superior Alveolar (AMSA) injection. Anesth Prog 2004;51(3):80-9.

Lev R, Reader A, Beck M, Meyers W. An in vitro comparison of the step-back technique versus a step-back/ultrasonic technique for 1 and 3 minutes. J Endod 1987;13(11):523-9.

Martin M, Nusstein J, Drum M, Reader A, Beck M. Anesthetic efficacy of 1.8mL versus 3.6 mL of 4% Articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine as a primary buccal infiltration of the mandibular first molar. J Endod 2011;37(5):588-92.

Mason R, Drum M, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M. A prospective, double-blind comparison of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and 1:50,000 epinephrine and 3% mepivacaine for maxillary infiltrations. J Endod 2009;35(9):1173-7.

Matthews R, Drum M, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M. Articaine for supplemental buccal mandibular infiltration anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis when the inferior alveolar nerve block fails. J Endod 2009;35(3):343-6.

Mendoza M, Reader A, Meyers W, Foreman D. An ultrastructural investigation of the human apical pulp in irreversible pulpitis. I. Nerves. J Endod 13(6):267-76, 1987.

Mendoza M, Reader A, Meyers W, Marquard J. An ultrastructural investigation of the human apical pulp in irreversible pulpitis. II. Vasculature and connective tissue. J Endod 13(7):318-27, 1987.

Mikesell A, Drum M, Reader A, Beck M. Anesthetic efficacy of 1.8 mL and 3.6 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine for maxillary infiltrations. J Endod 2008;34(2):121-5.

Mikesell P, Nusstein J, Reader A, Beck M, Weaver J. A comparison of articaine and lidocaine for inferior alveolar nerve blocks. J Endod 2005;31(4):265-70.

Montagnese T, Reader A,  Melfi R. A comparative study of the Gow-Gates technique and standard technique for mandibular anesthesia. J Endod 10(4):158-63, 1984.

Moore K, Reader A, Meyers W, Beck M, Weaver J. A comparison of the periodontal ligament injection using 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and saline in human mandibular premolars. Anesth Prog 34(5):181-6, 1987.

Murrin J, Reader A, Foreman D, Beck M, Meyers W. Hydron versus gutta-percha and sealer: A study of endodontic leakage using the SEM and energy-dispersive analysis. J Endod 11(3):101-9, 1985.

McCartney M, Reader A, Beck M.  Injection pain of the inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with irreversible pulpitis.  Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod  2007;104(4):571-5.

McEntire M, Nusstein J, Drum M, Reader A, Beck M. Anesthetic efficacy of 4% Articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine versus 4% Articaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine as a primary buccal infiltration in the mandibular first molar. J Endod 2011;37(4):450-4.

McLean C, Reader A, Beck M, Meyers W. An evaluation of 4% prilocaine and 3% mepivacaine compared with 2% lidocaine (1:100,000 epinephrine) for inferior alveolar nerve block. J Endod 19(3):146-50, 1993.

Nagle D, Reader A, Beck M, Weaver J. Effect of systemic penicillin on pain in untreated irreversible pulpitis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 90(5):636-40, 2000.

Nist E, Reader A, Beck M. Effect of apical trephination on postoperative pain and swelling in symptomatic necrotic teeth. J Endod 27(6):415-20, 2001.

Nist R, Reader A, Beck M, Meyers W. An evaluation of the incisive nerve block and combination inferior alveolar and incisive nerve blocks in mandibular anesthesia. J Endod 18(9):455-9, 1992.

Nusstein J.  Preoperative oral use of Ibuprofen or dexamethasone may improve the anesthetic efficacy of an inferior alveolar nerve block in patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis. J Evid Based Dent Pract 2013;13(3):102-3.

Nusstein J, Beck M. Comparison of preoperative pain and medication use in emergency patients presenting with irreversible or teeth with necrotic pulps. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2003;96(2):207-14.

Nusstein J, Beck M. Effectiveness of 20% benzocaine as a topical anesthetic for intraoral injections. Anesth Prog 2003;50(4):159-63.

Nusstein J, Berlin J, Reader A, Beck M, Weaver J. Comparison of Injection Pain, Heart Rate Increase and Post-Injection Pain of Articaine and Lidocaine in a Primary Intraligamentary Injection Administered with a Computer-Controlled Local Anesthetic Delivery System. Anesth Prog 2004;51(4):126-33.

Nusstein J, Burns Y, Reader A, Beck M, Weaver J. Injection pain and postinjection pain of the palatal-anterior superior alveolar injection, administered with the Wand Plus® system, comparing 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine to 3% mepivacaine. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2004;97(2):164-72.

Nusstein J, Claffey E, Reader A, Beck M, Weaver J. Anesthetic effectiveness of the supplemental intraligamentary injection, administered with a computer-controlled local anesthetic delivery system, in patients with irreversible pulpitis. J Endod 2005;31(5):354-8.

Nusstein J, Kennedy S, Reader A, Beck M, Weaver J. Anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental X-tip intraosseous injection in patients with irreversible pulpitis. J Endod 29(11):724-8, 2003.

Nusstein J, Lee S, Reader A, Beck M, Weaver J. Injection pain and postinjection pain of the anterior middle superior alveolar injection administered with the Wand or conventional syringe. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 98(1):124-31, 2004.

Nusstein J, Reader A, Beck M. Effect of drainage upon access on postoperative endodontic pain and swelling in symptomatic necrotic teeth. J Endod 28(8):584-8, 2002.

Nusstein J, Reader A, Beck M. Anesthetic efficacy of different volumes of lidocaine with epinephrine for inferior alveolar nerve blocks. Gen Dent 50(4):372-5, 2002.

Nusstein J, Reader A, Drum M. The challenges of successful mandibular anesthesia. Inside Dent 2008;4(5):58-70.

Nusstein J, Reader A, Drum M. Local anesthetic strategies for the patient with a "hot" tooth. Dent Clin N Amer 2010;54(2):237-47.

Nusstein J, Reader A, Nist R, Beck M, Meyers W. Anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental intraosseous injection of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in irreversible pulpitis. J Endod 24(7):487-91, 1998.

Nusstein J, Steinkruger G, Reader A, Beck M, Weaver J. The effects of a 2-stage injection technique on inferior alveolar nerve block injection pain. Anesth Prog 2006;53(4):126-30.

Nusstein J, Wood M, Reader A, Beck M, Weaver J. Comparison of the degree of pulpal anesthesia achieved with the intraosseous injection and infiltration injection using 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Gen Dent 53(1):50-3, 2005.

Nuzum FM, Drum M, Nusstein J, Reader A, Beck M. Anesthetic efficacy of articaine for combination labial plus lingual infiltrations versus labial infiltration in the mandibular lateral incisor. J Endod 2010;36(6):952-6.

Nydegger B, Nusstein J, Reader A, Drum M, Beck M. Anesthetic comparisons of 4% concentrations of articaine, lidocaine, and prilocaine as primary buccal infiltrations of the mandibular first molar: a prospective randomized, double-blind study. J Endod 2014;40(12):1912-6.

Oleson M, Drum M, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M. Effect of preoperative ibuprofen on the success of the inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with irreversible pulpitis. J Endod 2010;36(3):379-82.

Pabst L, Nusstein J, Drum M, Reader A, Beck M. The efficacy of a repeated buccal infiltration of articaine in prolonging duration of pulpal anesthesia in the mandibular first molar. Anesth Prog 2009;56(4):128-34.

Perlich M, Reader A, Foreman D. A scanning electron microscope investigation of accessory foramens on the pulpal floor of human molars. J Endod 1981;7(9):402-6.

Perry S, Drum M, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M. Effect of operator and subject gender on injection pain: A randomized double-blind study. J Endod 2015;41(2):141-5. 

Pfeil L, Drum M, Reader A, Gilles J, Nusstein J. Anesthetic efficacy of 1.8 mL and 3.6 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine for posterior superior alveolar nerve blocks. J Endod 2010;36(4):598-601.

Pickenpaugh L, Reader A, Beck M, Meyers W, Peterson L. Effect of prophylactic amoxicillin on endodontic flare-up in asymptomatic, necrotic teeth. J Endod 27(1):53-6, 2001.

Poweski L, Drum M, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M.  Role of ultrasonography in differentiating facila swellings of odontogenic origin. J Endod 2014;40(4):495-8.

Reader A. A teaching model for the buccal object rule. J Dent Educ 48(8):469-72, 1984.

Reader A, Foreman D. An ultrastructural quantitative investigation of human intradental innervation. J Endod 1981;7(11):493-500.

Reader A, Nusstein J. Local anesthesia for endodontic pain. Endodontic Topics 1(3):14-30, 2002.

Reisman D, Reader A, Nist R, Beck M, Weaver J. Anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental intraosseous injection of 3% mepivacaine in irreversible pulpitis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 84(6):676-82, 1997.

Reitz J, Reader A, Nist R, Beck M, Meyers W. Anesthetic efficacy of the intraosseous injection of 0.9 mL of 2% lidocaine (1:100,000 epinephrine) to augment an inferior alveolar nerve block. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 86(5):516-23, 1998.

Reitz J, Reader A, Nist R, Beck M, Meyers W. Anesthetic efficacy of a repeated intraosseous injection given 30 min. following an inferior alveolar nerve block/intraosseous injection. Anesth Prog 45:143-9, 1999.

Replogle K, Reader A, Nist R, Beck M, Weaver J, Meyers W. Anesthetic efficacy of the intraosseous injection of 2% lidocaine (1:100,000 epinephrine) and 3% mepivacaine in mandibular first molars. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 83(1):30-7, 1997.

Replogle K, Reader A, Nist R, Beck M, Weaver J, Meyers W. Cardiovascular effects of intraosseous injections of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and 3% mepivacaine. J Am Dent Assoc 130(5):649-57, 1999.

Ridenour S, Reader A, Beck M, Weaver J. Anesthetic efficacy of a combination of hyaluronidase and lidocaine with epinephrine in inferior alveolar nerve blocks. Anesth Prog 48(1):9-15, 2001.

Roberts S, Brilliant J. Tricalcium phosphate as an adjunct to apical closure in pulpless permanent teeth. J Endod 1975;1(8):263-9.

Robertson D, Nusstein J, Reader A, Beck M, McCartney M. The anesthetic efficacy of articaine in buccal infiltration injections. J Am Dent Assoc 2007:138(8);1104-12.

Rossmeisl R, Reader A,  Melfi R Marquard J. A study of freeze-dried (lyophilized) dentin used as an apical barrier in adult monkey teeth. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 53(3):303-10, 1982.

Rossmeisl R, Reader A,  Melfi R Marquard J. A study of freeze-dried (lyophilized) cortical bone used as an apical barrier in adult monkey teeth. J Endod 8(5):219-26, 1982.

Russin T, Zardiackas L, Reader A, Menke R. Apical seals obtained with laterally condensed, chloroform-softened gutta-percha and laterally condensed gutta-percha and Grossman's sealer. J Endod 6(8):678-82, 1980.

Salzgeber R, Brilliant J. An in vivo evaluation of the penetration of an irrigating solution in root canals. J Endod 3(10):394-8, 1977.

Schellenberg J, Drum M, Nusstein J, Reader A, Fowler S, Beck M. Effect of buffered 4% lidocaine on the success of the inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. J Endod 2015;41(6):791-6.

Schleder J, Reader A, Beck M, Meyers W. The periodontal ligament injection: A comparison of 2% lidocaine, 3% mepivacaine, and 1:100,000 epinephrine to 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in human mandibular premolars. J Endod 14(8):397-404, 1988.

Scott J, Drum M, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M. The efficacy of a repeated infiltration in prolonging duration of pulpal anesthesia in maxillary lateral incisors. J Am Dent Assoc 2009;140(3):318-24.

Sebastian R, Drum M, Reader A, Nusstein J, Fowler S, Beck M. What is the effect of no endodontic debridement on postoperative pain for symptomatic teeth with pulpal necrosis? J Endod 2016;42(3):378-82.

Shiveley J, Reader A, Beck M, Melfi R, Meyers W. An in vitro autoradiographic study comparing the apical seal of uncatalyzed Dycal to Grossman's sealer. J Endod 11(2):62-6, 1985.

Shurtz R, Nusstein J, Reader A, Drum M, Fowler S, Beck M. Buffered 4% articaine as a primary buccal infiltration of the mandibular first molar: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. J Endod 2015;41(9):1403-7.

Simon F, Reader A, Drum M, Nusstein J, Beck M. A prospective, randomized single-blind study of the anesthetic efficacy of the inferior alveolar nerve block administered with a peripheral nerve stimulator. J Endod 2010;36(3):429-33.

Simpson M, Drum M, Nusstein J, Reader A, Beck M. Effect of combination of preoperative ibuprofen/acetaminophen on the success of the inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. J Endod 2011;37(5):593-7.

Smith S, Reader A, Drum M, Nusstein J, Beck M. Anesthetic efficacy of a combination of 0.5 M mannitol plus 127.2 mg of lidocaine with 50 µg epinephrine in inferior alveolar nerve blocks: A prospective randomized, single-blind study. Anesth Prog 2013;60(4):3-10.

Stabile P, Reader A, Gallatin E, Beck M, Weaver J. Anesthetic efficacy and heart rate effects of the intraosseous injection of 1.5% etidocaine (1:200,000 epinephrine) after an inferior alveolar nerve block. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2000;89(4):407-11.

Steinkruger G, Nusstein J, Reader A, Beck M, Weaver J. The significance of needle bevel orientation in achieving a successful inferior alveolar nerve block. J Am Dent Assoc 2006;137(12):1685-91.

Stanley W, Drum M, Nusstein J, Reader A, Beck M. Effect of nitrous oxide on the efficacy of the inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. J Endod 2012;38(5):565-9.

Susi L, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M, Weaver J, Drum M. Heart rate effects of intraosseous injections using slow and fast rates of anesthetic solution deposition. Anesth Prog 2008;55(1):9-15.

Uhle R, Reader A, Nist R, Weaver J, Beck M, Meyers W. Peripheral opioid analgesia in teeth with symptomatic inflamed pulps. Anesth Prog 44:90-5, 1997.

Vande Visse J, Brilliant J. Effect of irrigation on the production of extruded material at the root apex during instrumentation. J Endod 1975;1(7):243-6.

Vreeland D, Tidwell E. Flap design for surgical endodontics. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1982;54(4):461-5.

Vreeland D, Reader A, Beck M, Meyers W, Weaver J. An evaluation of volumes and concentrations of lidocaine in human inferior alveolar nerve block. J Endod 1989;15(1):6-12.

Wali M, Drum M, Reader A, Nusstein J. Prospective, randomized single-blind study of the anesthetic efficacy of 1.8 and 3.6 milliliters of 2% lidocaine with 1:50,000 epinephrine for inferior alveolar nerve block. J Endod 2010;36(9):1459-62.

Webster S, Drum M, Reader A, Fowler S, Nusstein J, Beck M. How effective is supplemental intraseptal anesthesia in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis? J Endod 2016;42(10)1453-7.

Wells K, Drum M, Nusstein J, Reader A, Beck M. Efficacy of ibuprofen and ibuprofen/acetaminophen on postoperative pain in symptomatic patients with a pulpal diagnosis of necrosis. J Endod 2011;37(12):1608-12.

Whitcomb M, Drum M, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M. A prospective, randomized, double-blind study of the anesthetic efficacy of sodium bicarbonate buffered 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in inferior alveolar nerve blocks.  Anesth Prog 2010;57(2):59-66.

White J, Reader A, Beck M, Meyers W. The periodontal ligament injection: A comparison of the efficacy in human maxillary and mandibular teeth. J Endod 1988;14(10):508-14.

Wolf R, Reader A, Drum M, Nusstein J, Beck M. Anesthetic efficacy of combinations of 0.5 M mannitol and lidocaine with epinephrine in inferior alveolar nerve blocks: A prospective, randomized, single-blind study.  Anesth Prog 2011;58(4):157-65.

Wood M, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M, Padgett D, Weaver J. Comparison of intraosseous and infiltration injections for venous lidocaine blood concentrations and heart rate changes after injection of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. J Endod 2005;31(6):435-8.

Yonchak T, Reader A, Beck M, Clark K, Meyers W. Anesthetic efficacy of infiltrations in mandibular anterior teeth. Anesth Prog 48(2):55-60, 2001.

Yonchak T, Reader A, Beck M, Meyers W. Anesthetic efficacy of unilateral and bilateral inferior alveolar nerve blocks to determine cross innervation in anterior teeth. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2001;92(2):132-5.

Younkin K, Reader A, Drum M, Nusstein J, Beck M. Anesthetic efficacy of combinations of 0.5 M mannitol plus 36.8 mg of lidocaine with 18.4 µg epinephrine in maxillary infiltration: a prospective, randomized, single-bland study.  Anesth Prog 2014;61(2):63-8.

(165) Updated 26 January, 2017